Database Management Basics

Database management is a system of coordinating the information that supports a company’s business operations. It involves storing and distributing data it to applications and users and editing it when needed, monitoring data changes, and preventing data corruption due to unexpected failure. It is part of the overall infrastructure of a business that supports decision making as well as corporate growth and compliance with laws like the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They developed into information management systems (IMS) which allowed large amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of reasons. From calculating inventory, to supporting complicated financial accounting functions, and human resource functions.

A database is a collection of tables which organize data according to an established pattern, such as one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary keys to identify records and permit cross-references between tables. Each table has a set of fields, called attributes, that represent facts about the data entities. Relational models, developed by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM, are the most popular database type in the present. The design is based on normalizing the data, making it more easy to use. It also makes it simpler to update data since it eliminates the need to change several databases.

Most DBMSs are able to support different types of databases by offering different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level focuses on cost, scalability and other operational concerns including the design of the database’s physical storage. The external level is the representation of the database in user interfaces and applications. It can include a mixture of different external views that are based on different models of data and may also include virtual tables that are calculated using generic data to enhance the performance.

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